An Enemy of the People is an play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. Ibsen wrote it .. “Um Inimigo do Povo na Comuna” [An Enemy of the People in the Commune]. (in Portuguese). Portugal: Teatro da. Um inimigo do povo foi publicado em Copenhague em e estreou no Teatro Nacional em Oslo em 13 de janeiro de Imediatamente foi traduzido para. Questions About Um Inimigo do Povo. by Henrik Ibsen. Reader Q&A. To ask other readers questions about Um Inimigo do Povo, please sign up.
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An Enemy of the People original Norwegian title: En folkefiende is an play by Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen. Ibsen wrote it in response to the public outcry against his previous play, Ghostswhich challenged the hypocrisy of 19th-century morality. According to Ellen Mortensen Ibsen Studies v.
Therefore, An Enemy of the People tells the story of a man who dares to speak an unpalatable truth, and is punished for it. However, Ibsen took a somewhat skeptical view of his protagonist, suggesting that he may have gone too far in his zeal to tell the truth.
Ibsen wrote to his publisher: It may [have] many traits of comedy, but it also is based on a serious idea. Tomas Stockmann is the medical officer of a recently opened spa in a small town in southern Norway. The play begins in Dr. Stockmann’s house, where his wife Katrine is entertaining dinner guests. As the evening progresses, Dr. Stockmann’s brother Peter the mayor and Hovstad the editor of the newspaper arrive at the house.
The Mayor asks his brother about a rumor that Hovstad is about to print an article he wrote regarding the spa baths.
Um Inimigo do Povo, de Henrik Ibsen | Formatura CAL 2018.1
Stockmann is evasive about the ibswn of this article, and Peter leaves. Stockmann’s daughter Petra brings in a letter, which reveals that Dr.
Stockmann’s suspicions were correct and the spa water is contaminated with bacteria he had sent samples of water away to be tested in a lab. With this proof in hand, Hovstad agrees to print Dr.
Stockmann’s article, which will reveal the truth about the spa water. This will bring a great deal of attention to the baths and possibly force them to shut down which will have repercussions on the town’s economy. Stockmann is overwhelmed with all that has happened, but rejoices that he has saved the town. The next morning in Dr. Stockmann’s father-in-law, stops by to congratulate him ibsdn what Kiil believes is an elaborate prank.
Kiil says that the insen that the baths are tainted is too ridiculous to be believed, and certainly not by the mayor. Hovstad and the printer Aslaksen visit the house to reinforce their jbsen to the doctor and extend their gratitude. The new alliance between the newspaper and Dr.
Stockmann has a deeper interest than just the baths. The newspaper wants to confront the government of the town and expose the corruption imimigo happens behind closed doors, and this opportunity is a way to start.
Peter enters the house, and everything becomes inimiyo. Stockmann that if he proceeds with this article and exposes this information to the town, he will be partially culpable for the ruin of the town. Stockmann of being selfish and not thinking of the bigger picture. Stockmann to retract the article and to solve the problem in a more quiet way. Stockmann refuses his brother’s propositions. Peter reiterates that there will be terrible consequences for him and his family.
In the newspaper office, Hovstad and Billing discuss the pros and cons of running Dr. Stockmann’s article, which will damage the reputation of the town government. They are ready to proceed and help bring the privileged classes down. Stockmann comes into the office and tells them to print the article, but the office starts to experience a change of heart, questioning how valuable is it really to expose the government and the town’s baths in this way.
They realize printing this article will do more damage than help with the situation, and may cause the town’s economy to crater. Peter Stockmann comes to the newspaper office with a statement of his own, intending to reassure the public about the safety of the spa baths. The newspaper readily agrees to print the mayor’s statement. Stockmann decides that he does not need the paper to print anything and that he can fight this battle on his own.
He decides to call a town meeting and spread the information that way. Katrine Stockmann realizes that her husband is making an extreme decision and is risking his reputation, but she stands by him. At a town meeting in Captain Horster’s house, Dr. Stockmann is about to read his water report to the townspeople. Billing, the family, the mayor, Aslaksen, and Hovstad are there. Aslaksen, a respected citizen, is elected Chairman of the meeting. Stockmann’s being allowed to speak is about to be voted on when he says he has a different subject.
He then winds up into a passionate oration about social evolution. He says that new, truthful ideas are always condemned, due to the “colossal stupidity of the authorities” and the small-mindedness of “the compact majority” of the people, who may as well “be exterminated.
By the end of the meeting the audience has rebelled, repeatedly shouting, “He is an enemy of the people! Stockmann tells his father-in-law, Kiil, that it is his tannery that is leaking most of the poisons into the baths.
As the crowd is leaving, voices are heard threatening to break his windows. The next morning, Dr. Stockmann’s study is shown, badly damaged. The windows of the house have been smashed. The town has turned against the family, and no one they know will help them. The landlord is evicting them from their house, and Petra has been fired from her job as a schoolteacher for having progressive opinions.
Peter comes to the house to present Povp. Stockmann with a letter from the board of directors of the baths, terminating his contract, and a resolution from the homeowners’ association stating that no one should hire Dr.
Stockmann in this town again. Stockmann’s father-in-law, Morton Kiil, arrives to say that he has just bought shares in the Baths inimio the money that he had intended to leave to his daughter and povi. He expects that will cause his son-in-law to stop his crusade, to ensure that the spa does not go bankrupt and his family will have a secure future.
Stockmann rebuffs Kiil’s threat and also ignores Peter’s advice to leave town for a few months. Stockmann she is inimifo that the people will drive him out of town. Stockmann replies that he inimgo to stay and make them understand “that considerations of expediency and justice turn morality and justice upside down.
In An Enemy of the Peoplespeaking the language of comic exaggeration through the mouth of his pogo, the idealist Doctor Thomas Stockmann, Ibsen puts into very literal terms the theme of the play: It is true that ideas grow stale and platitudinous, but one may go one step further and say flatly that truths die. According to Stockmann, there are no absolute principles of either wisdom or morality.
In this Ibsen is referring indirectly to the reception of his previous ym. For example, the commandment “honor thy father and thy mother” referred to in Ghosts is not simply either true or false. It may have been a truth once and a falsehood today. Truths are by no means the wiry Methuselahs some people think them. A normally constituted truth lives—let us say—as a rule, seventeen or eighteen years; at the outside twenty; very seldom more. And truths so patriarchal as that are always shockingly emaciated.
Yet, Ibsen addresses in an engaging manner a number of challenges that remain highly relevant today, such as environmental issues versus economic interestsprofessional responsibilities of experts in policy debates and, last but not least, the moral dilemmas and tensions involved in whistle blowing.
Scottish drama critic William Archeran early and contemporary advocate of Ibsen’s plays, said the play was less sensational than some of Ibsen’s earlier efforts, inimiog was a strong drama with excellent dialogue and characters.
This classic play was adapted by Arthur Miller in the s in a production that opened at the Broadhurst Theater on December 28, It was also made into a movie of the same name instarring Steve McQueen. Many major edits not only included the transformation of speech and language, but changes were made to the character of Dr. Stockmann to avoid having him champion eugenics.
Throughout the play, Dr. Stockmann acts as a Christ figure. Miller found it necessary therefore to change Ibsen’s use of genetic and racial theories from the late s to further Dr. Stockmann’s standing as a champion of the lower classes as opposed to a scientist with a belief in racial determinism and the importance of eugenics for “improving” people.
For example, in Ibsen’s original, a portion of Dr. Stockmann’s speech to the people contained:. The masses are nothing but the raw plvo that must be fashioned into the people. Is it not so with all other living creatures on earth? How great the difference between a cultivated and an uncultivated breed of animals!
Don’t you believe that the brain of a poodle has developed quite differently from that of a mongrel?
Um Inimigo do Povo — Reader Q&A
Yes, you may depend upon that! It is educated poodles like this that jugglers train to perform the most extraordinary tricks. A common peasant-cur could never learn anything of the sort—not if he tried till Doomsday In Miller’s adaptation, no such eugenics-positive screed is read.
Stockmann’s ideals as a character, and his dedication to facing down the hypocrisy of the aristocracy and governmental bureaucrats, but portrays him as more of a democratic thinker and socialist, while retaining some of the original character’s ideas about the evolution of animals and humans, and the need to cultivate humane qualities in order to bring the masses to a more rational and educated level, so that they can fully participate in a democracy.
In Miller’s adaptation, part of the doctor’s speech reads:. I put in a good many years in the north of our country.