Geography and Foreign Policy, I – Volume 32 Issue 1 – Nicholas J. Spykman. GEOGRAPHY AND FOREIGN POLICY, I NICHOLAS J. SPYKMAN. Yale University. “La politique de toutes les puissances est dans leur geographie,”‘ conceded. Nicholas John Spykman was an American political scientist who was one of the founders of the In his writings on geography and foreign policy, Spykman was somewhat of a geographical determinist. Since geography was “the most.

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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Mr Bordonaro is currently writing an essay on the origins and evolution of Anglo-American geopolitical thought.

Spykman predicted that Japan would lose the Pacific War and that China and Russia would remain to struggle against eac other over boundaries. Nicholas John Spykman pronounced “Speak-man”, 13 October — 26 June was an American political scientist who was one of the founders of the classial realist school in American foreign geographt, transmitting Eastern European political thought to the United States.

Presciently, Spykman also foresaw the irresistible rise of the Pacific Ocean as a key route for world trade. He worked as a journalist in various parts of the world during much of the s and also served as a diplomatic assistant for the Netherlands in Egypt and the Dutch East Indies. Therefore, British, Russian, and US power would play the key roles in controlling the European litoral and there the essential power relations of the world. Concerned with the balance of powerhe geobraphy that isolationismwhich relied on the oceans to protect the United States ” hemispheric ” or “quarter defense”was bound to fail.

Nicholas J. Spykman

This page was last edited on 26 Novemberat He then highlighted the crucial importance of geopolitical change, as history had changed the salience of certain areas and resources.

Spykman was opposed to European integration and argued that US interests favored balanced power in Europe, rather than integrated power. Spykman agrees that the Heartland offers a uniquely-defensive position, but that is all Spykman grants its occupier. Raw material resources and industrial organization have therefore become the prerequisites of power whether by land or by sea.


For Collins, territorial resource and geo-positional advantages were the two fundamental geopolitical advantages of world power, and they worked cumulatively over time. Share on Twitter Tweet. The importance of such an insightful consideration could be hardly overstated.

Rediscovering Spykman – the Rimland, Geography of Peace and Foreign Policy

The US was fighting a war against Germany to prevent Europe’s conquest, and it would not forsign sense to federalize or to unify Europe after a war that had been fought to preserve balance. As a result, the theoretical and analytical work of Dutch-born American scholar Nicholas J. The exploration of spylman entire world means that the foreign policy of any nation will affect more than its immediate neighbors; it will affect the alignment of nations throughout the world’s regions.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Maritime mobility opened up the possibility of a new geopolitical structure: Spykman of Yale Dies at 49″.

Spykman sees both continents’ geopolitical status as determined respectively by ad state of control over the Mediterranean Sea and the “Asiatic Mediterranean.

Rediscovering Spykman – the Rimland, Geography of Peace and Foreign Policy |

In the late s, German geopolitical science was flourishing, especially because of the Munich School and its widely read journal Die Zeitschrift fuer Geopolitik.

This article needs additional citations for verification. Inhe came to Yale Universitywhere he was an assistant professor of international relations. All of the examples that Spykman introduced in his and articles were taken from history, instead than from mere theories. Since the s, both the academic world and the analytical community in the field of international relations and political theory have shown a renewed interest for classical geopolitics.

In other words, the Eurasian struggle was not the sea powers containing the Heartland but the prevention of any power from ruling the Rimland. But the geography of a state cannot be ignored by men who formulate its policy. His work on geopolitics and geostrategy led him to be to known as the ” godfather of containment.


However, in the last decade, IR theory, and particularly offensive realism and neo-classical realism, seems to have rediscovered geography Mearsheimer ; Mouritzen and Wivel By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Again, Spykman differs from Mackinder, who sees Eurasian wars as historically pitting the Heartland against the sea powers for control of the rimland, establishing a land power-sea power opposition. The Rimland has great importance because of its demographic weight, natural resources, and industrial development.

Sharing a characteristic that is proper of all serious geopolitical analysts, Spykman founded his method in history, and most importantly, in long-run history.

Still, the Soviet Union was to remain the greatest land power in Asia and could be a peacekeeper or a problem.

Since geography was “the most fundamentally conditioning factor because of its relative permanence,” it is of primary relevance in analyzing a state’s potential foreign policy. He also forecast the rise of China, becoming the dominant power in Asia and that the US would thus take responsibility for Japan’s defense. At the same time, even if he gives credit to the strategic importance of maritime space like Mackinder, [ clarification needed ] he does not see it as a region that will be unified by powerful transportation or communication infrastructure geograhy the near future.

Kind regards, Leonhardt, editor of ExploringGeopolitics. Strategically, there was no difference between Germany dominating all the way to the Ural or Russia controlling all the way to Germany, and as both scenarios were equally threatening to the US.

Since the Industrial Revolution, however, strength has soykman more and more identified with industrial strength. While it would be incorrect to overlook the impact of that thesis on the U.

Owen and Francis Sempa in the U. Spykman was born on 13 October in Amsterdam.