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A zinc ion sits at the bottom of the cleft and is coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry by three histidine residues, a tyrosine residue Tyrand a water molecule, which is also bound to the carboxylic acid side chain of Glu Cells in RIPA buffer were scraped on ice and sonicated.

The numbers of the metalloproteinase domain can be converted to the positions in the BMP-1 sequence by adding xs In contrast to the other mutants studied, the C85A mutant was poorly secreted and could only be detected in the culture medium when the gel was overloaded. In astacin, the equivalent cysteine Cys 64 forms a vital disulfide bond with a non-active site cysteine Cys BMP-1, also known as procollagen C-proteinase PCP 2is fundamental to the synthesis of the extracellular matrix, because it cleaves the C-propeptides of type I, II, and III vs 34 and presumably the C-propeptides of the other major fibrillar collagen precursors, type V and XI procollagen.

Furthermore, this result showed that endogenous levels of BMP-1 in the culture medium of COS-7 cells were below the detection limit of the assay and that nonspecific proteinases that might occur in the preparations did not interfere with the PCP assays. Media were removed after 48 h and replaced by DMEM without serum and conditioned for another 24 h. The procollagen content was determined by the sensitive hydroxyproline assay method of Terlink The neoepitope anti-peptide antibody detected only the mature enzyme, which occurred in the culture medium and not in the cell lysate.

Responses Submit a Letter to the Editor. This is consistent with processing of latent BMP-1 by COS-7 cells occurring after, or during, secretion from the cells. Previous De Next Section. Therefore, understanding the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme is relevant to studies of animal development and tissue organization. The only candidates were Cys 63 and Cys Polymerase chain reaction products were purified with a Qiaquick kit Qiagen.

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Sequence Analysis In preliminary studies we performed a multiple sequence alignment of 31 members of the astacin family of metalloproteinases using MultAlin 25 data not shown. The pcDNA3 vector containing the cDNA for BMP-1myc was transfected into COS-7 cells, and the conditioned culture medium and the cell lysate were analyzed by Western blotting using the 9E10 antibody which detects the c-myc tag at the C terminus of the molecule and the neoepitope antibody which was raised to a peptide corresponding to the 10 residues at the N terminus of mature BMP BMP-1myc was examined by Western blot analysis in which the primary antibody was either the mouse monoclonal anti-c-myc peptide antibody, 9E10, or the rabbit neoepitope polyclonal antibody.

Further experiments showed that Cys 66 and Cys 63which are located in the tolloid-specific sequence Cys 63 -Gly 64 -Cys 65 -Cys 66 in the active site, most likely form a disulfide bridge.

It was first necessary to establish and validate a system capable of expressing recombinant BMP-1 that exhibited PCP activity. The preparations were then examined in assays of procollagen C-proteinase. These cysteine residues are Cys 64 and Cys 84respectively, and are invariant in all astacin family members However, the fact that the C65A mutant was well secreted raised the possibility that another cysteine residue could substitute for Cys 65 in bonding to Cys C66G was also secreted efficiently into the culture medium.

The x-ray crystal structure of astacin shows a disulfide bond between a cysteine in the upper edge of the active site cleft and a cysteine buried in the body of the metalloproteinase domain Residue numbers are labeled with an asteriskin blocks of 10 residues and specific for BMP-1 and astacin.

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The C63G and C65A mutants migrated exclusively as the slower migrating reduced form. In the absence of structural information of the metalloproteinase domain of BMP-1 we reasoned that a valid approach was to examine the function of individual residues by site-directed mutagenesis. The absence of the Cys 63 -Cys 66 disulfide bond in 1 the Cys 66 mutant, 2 the Cys 63 da because Cys 66 has a free thiol group in this mutantand 3 the Cys 65 mutant because Cys 85 has bonded with Cys 63 thus leaving a free thiol group on Cys 66 alters the chemical structure of 262377 S1 site and decreases PCP activity.

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BMP-1 and its larger splice variant mammalian tolloid are important in development 9as well as embryo patterning in Drosophila 10Xenopus 11and sea urchin 12 Undigested procollagen P ; containing disulfide-bonded chain migrates near the top of the SDS-gel.

The Xcm I site is located at nucleotide Taken together, these observations led us to hypothesize that Lys 87 might be important for PCP activity. Prev Next Table of Contents. To test this hypothesis we mutated Lys 87 to alanine and assayed the mutant enzyme.

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Services Email this article to a friend Alert me when this article is cited Alert me if a correction is posted Alert me when eletters are published Similar articles in this journal Similar articles in Web of Science Similar articles in PubMed Download 2623 citation manager Request Permissions. In samples containing wild-type BMP-1 and recombinant BMP-1myc the procollagen was converted to a normal intermediate in the conversion of procollagen to collagen containing the N-propeptides 226237 not the C-propeptides.

CrossRef Medline Google Scholar. The proteins were secreted mostly as mature BMP This included astacin, BMP-1, mammalian tolloid, mammalian tolloid-like-1, mammalian tolloid-like-2, and meprins. We showed that substitution of alanine for Glu 94 eliminated the PCP activity of BMP-1 and confirmed that this glutamic acid residue is essential for catalytic activity of this enzyme.

This Article First Published on March 29, doi: Pwo DNA polymerase was used to minimize base misincorporation during the polymerase chain reactions.