The six dimensions of national culture defined by Geert Hofstede described, Each dimension has been derived by comparing many, but not all, countries in. ARTICLES. Hofstede’s cultural Dimensions and tourist behaviors: A review and conceptual Framework*. Las dimensiones culturales y la conducta turística. Transcript of DIMENSIONES CULTURALES DE HOFSTEDE. AUTOLARTE “Las organizaciones están divididas en pequeños grupos de.

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The “After” category includes stage 5 and includes behaviors related to evaluations of the purchase and consumption experiences by the consumers.

Societies with a low cultuurales in this dimension have a tendency to cynicism and pessimism.

The 6 dimensions model of national culture by Geert Hofstede

Based on industry interviews, the author estimated that the proportion of customers buying group tours was as follows: They possess a positive attitude and have a tendency towards optimism. Whereas individuals are the basic subject of psychological analysis Smith,the socialization of individuals and their interaction with society is a matter to be studied at the level of families, peers, neighborhoods, schools, cities, and nations each with its own statistical imprint of culture Smith, European Journal of Marketing, 22 5 Countries like India have a great tolerance for religious views from all over the world.

The hofsrede set of Hofsteds behaviors identified corresponding to these preferences BT9 to BT14 describes the following choices: So, for professionals who work internationally; people who interact daily with other people from different countries within their company or with other companies abroad; Hofstede’s model gives insights into other cultures.

First, Asian cultures are people oriented Collectivistic societies and Asian tourists are likely to expect greater courtesy and consideration compared to societies, which are less people oriented and individualistic.

Travel and tourism, however, is an extremely complex product for several reasons. The number of statistically significant and divergent findings was 5 out dimensiojes 14 for C2, and 9 out of 22 for C3.

The results of path analysis indicated that for both Australian and foreign samples, significant relationships existed between culture and safety, tourism risk and anxiety, socio-cultural risk and anxiety, and anxiety and intention to travel internationally. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 15 4 With this model, Geert Hofstede shed light on these differences. Annals of Tourism Research, 22 4 The next section summarizes the work of Hofstede and his colleagues related to the development of five cultural dimensions.

The theory has been widely used in several fields as a paradigm for research, particularly in cross-cultural psychologyinternational management, and cross-cultural communication. Any study will reveal its own pattern, so yes, other dimensions can be found. The safety perceptions were measured for certain selected regions and situations.


The cultural distance was compared by subtracting dimensionfs base score of 43 from Uncertainty Avoidance score of the host countries to which the participants were headed. Views Read Edit View history.

Las dimensiones culturales y la conducta turística según Hofstede: análisis y marco conceptual

Crotts and Litvin used data set for the yearand their study included outbound tourists from U. The “National Culture” is captured through five dimensions of Hofstede Crotts predicted that the cultural distance will be positively correlated with risk-reducing behaviors such as larger travel groups, less frequent travel, shorter trips, and lower number of destinations in the itinerary. When working in international companies, managers may provide training to their employees to make them sensitive to cultural differences, develop nuanced business practices, with protocols across countries.

Country comparison Select one or several countries in the menu below to see the values for the 6 dimensions. We feel that the Confucian Dynamism dimension has a lot of potential for explaining several types of tourist behaviors, and we discuss some of these issues in the next section.

These other categories of variables are also conceptualized to moderate the relationship between individualism versus collectivism and group travel behavior.

Next, we identify several specific tourist behavior domains under each of these three overall groups. The cultural values of Hofstede,are found relevant for the understanding of tourist behaviors in all categories of the before, during, and after tourist experience. Journal of Travel Research, 42 November Quantity is important and big is beautiful.

The quest for unusual, out of the ordinary experiences, which would not be normally permitted back home, leads many tourists to embrace “tourist culture” behaviors. The canonical loadings for the four cultural value factors indicated that two out of the four factors met the criterion, Social Integration factor and Personal Well-Being factor, implying that these two factors had greater relevance for the cultural values concept compared to other two factors, Work Dynamism factor and Moral Discipline factor.

The data were analyzed using factor analysis and yielded five factors. A Feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The relatively low score of 24 means that the Mexican culture is normative.

Lastly for the “language study” segment, the three top destinations included the three English speaking countries: Even if country indices were used to control for wealth, latitude, population size, density and growth, privileged males working as engineers or sales personnel in one of the elite organizations of the world, pioneering one of the first multinational projects in history, cannot be claimed to represent their nations.


The five cultural value dimensions identified by Hofstede, namely, individualism versus collectivism, power distance, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and Confucian dynamism long versus short term orientation have been widely acknowledged as the most significant approach to the study of cross-cultural differences in human behavior. Based on these applicability patterns and our understanding of the underlying processes, we identify three categories of behaviors.

Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory

A study by Mattila examined the difference between Asian and Western tourists in their perceptions of the service encounter and service quality evaluation for two luxury hotels in Singapore. Effects of information capitalism and globalisation on teaching and learning. Organizational Dynamics, 16 4 Hofstede acknowledges that the cultural dimensions he identified, as culture and values, are theoretical constructions.

The contrast of Eastern versus Western cultural values is very powerfully summed up by Hofstede and Bondwhere Confucius was a teacher of practical ethics, without any religious content.

When the perceived performance exceeds the expectations, it leads to satisfaction; on the other hand, when the perceived performance falls below the expectations, it leads to dissatisfaction. Finding of his study supported these predictions.

The 6D model of national culture

Instead of the convergence phenomena we expected with information technologies availability the ” global village culture”cultural differences are still significant today and diversity tends to increase.

A study by Ressinger and Mavondo examined the relationship between cultural orientation, travel motivation, travel safety, travel anxiety and intention to travel internationally.

The authors also note that, besides statistical significance, divergence of opinions in these comparisons provides even more robust insights. Hoofstede author proposes a conceptual model in which the individualism versus collectivism in a culture affects group travel behavior in conjunction with two other categories of variables social, political and economic factors and personal background age, education, income, language skills and past overseas travel experience.

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