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In addition, many words have been borrowed from KikojgoPortugueseand English. Languages of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Editions LECO, p. There are also other historical names such as KibulamatadiKikwangoIkeleve literally: The status of Kituba in Angola is not known.

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It is a creole language [5] based on Kikongoa family of closely related Bantu languages. The bulk of Kituba words come from Kikongo.

In the academic circles dicitonnaire language is called Kikongo-Kituba. The long forms are used in formal written communication whereas the short forms have developed for spoken communication. Kituba is known by many names among its speakers.

Kituba language – Wikipedia

The vowels are pronounced as follows:. Vowels are never reduced, regardless of stress. The object diftionnaire are used in place of subject pronouns when the subject is being emphasized. There are several theories on how Kituba came into being. The latter means simply “speech”.

The irregular conjugation of the verb kuvanda or kuvuanda to be is presented in the table below. Kitubabecause a translation of the constitution itself is written in Kituba but no translation exists in Kikongo.

In the Republic of Congo it is called Munukutuba or Kituba. Regardless of the genesis, Kituba has established itself in the large towns dictionnaiire were found during the colonial period between and The name Kituba is used in the constitution of the Republic of Congo. Retrieved from ” https: This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.


The former is a grammatically incorrect phrase which means literally “I to speak”. Lingala is more popular in the north. Dictionnnaire is probable that it is understood by some of the Bakongo people there, especially those who have lived in the Republic of Congo or the Democratic Republic of Congo as refugees or otherwise. One theory claims that it had already evolved at the time of the Kongo Kingdom as a simplified interdialectal trade language, which the Kikomgo colonists subsequently took into use for regional administration.

It is not widely available. Languages of the Republic of the Congo. The most common forms are “ila”, indicating action to or toward someone, and “ana”, indicating mutual or reciprocal action:.

Yet another theory emphasizes the construction of the Matadi – Kinshasa railroad at the end of the 19th century, which involved forced labour from West Africalower Congo, and the neighbouring Bandundu region. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Kikongo of the state administrationbut it is often called in short Kikongoespecially out of the region of ethnic Bakongo people. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.

He is not hereand Kizabave but they have largely fallen out of use. Sadisa “to help”, Sadisana “help one another”, Sadisanaka “helped one another past [7].


Kongo Kituba Lingala Swahili Tshiluba. In practice the term national language means that it is a language of regional administration and elementary education. Kituba is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa. Most verb forms have long and short versions. Kituba has a well-developed verbal system involving grammatical dicctionnaire and aspect. Language articles citing Ethnologue 18 Articles lacking in-text citations from August All articles lacking in-text kikonggo Language articles with old Ethnologue 18 speaker data Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers.

First Kituba developed downriver Congoan area which is inhabited by the Bakongo. The constitution of the Democratic Republic of Congo lists Kikongo as one of the national languages. Another theory claims that a simplified trade language called Kifyoti was developed at the Portuguese coastal trading 18 post and it was later spread upstream by the Christian missionaries to the region between the Kwango and the Kasai rivers where it evolved further hence the name Kikwango.

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. For a guide to IPA symbols, see Help: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Kituba has subject and object pronouns. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo it is called Kikongo ya leta i. The classes 9 and 11 have in effect merged with the singular class with zero prefix, and their plural is formed with generic plural class prefix ba.