Self-anchoring category rating scales seem to fulfill this requirement, since satisfaction is also referred to in the literature as the Self-Anchoring Striving Scale . Scales by Ed Diener. Joseph Smiley Distinguished Professor of Psychology, Emeritus, University of Illinois., Source: Hadley Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Striving. negative feelings); Brief Psychological Well-Being Scale; Comprehensive Psychological Well-Being Scale; Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Striving Scale (Ladder).

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A number of preliminary conclusions emerge. We thank Stfiving Stone, Erik Meijer and two anonymous referees for very helpful comments. Accordingly, in recent decades, research interest has been rising to find broader measures of well-being to be used to monitor societal progress and evaluate policy.

Yesterday did you travel or commute? Two perspectives on life. Overall, how anxious did you feel yesterday? Recall that we did this so that we are able to compare response cantri effects across a common set of items.

In most ways my life is close to ideal.

Dimensions of Subjective Well-Being

The internal structure of positive and negative affect: In the current section selfanchoring purpose is to consider the items in the original scales so we concentrate therefore initially on analyses of the Gallup and HWB12 measures. This self-anchorng confirms the theory of higher data quality, through higher validity and lower residual error, when using a higher number of answer categories Andrews Did you experience frustration during a lot of the day yesterday? High income improves evaluation of life but not emotional well-being.


Structural equation models with latent variables. This will apply for all combinations, i.

Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Ladder

Journal of Business and Economic Statistics. Looking at the effects of gender, we observe that these vary by outcome measure and are mostly insignificant. Consistent with the literature, we observe a strong negative effect of being unemployed see for instance Clark and Oswald ; Stutzer ; or DiTella et al. For Gallup this does not seem to be the case however: Yesterday did you do any health-related activities other than walking or exercise?

Cantril’s Self-Anchoring Ladder

Does economic growth improve the human lot? The role of household decision making. Do we really know what makes us happy? Out of 4, eligible respondents three respondents of the first wave were not available for the second wave4, respondents answered the module for the second wave, resulting in a response rate of Given the different reference time frame used by those Gallup items and the experienced and eudemonic measures of the ONS scale, we chose to include only items referring to the present and involving evaluative measures.


In addition to these, we also included four questions from ELSA based on those collected by the UK Office of National Statistics ONS which comprise one evaluative life satisfaction question, one eudemonic question and two experienced well-being questions related to feelings of happiness and anxiety during the previous day.

Please say how much you agree or disagree with the following statements. Rounding probabilistic expectations in surveys.

Contributor Information Arie Kapteyn, Email: The different response scales imply a different number of underlying factors and different relations with demographics. See for instance, Watson et al. Did you experience depression during a lot of the day yesterday? Yesterday did you spend time with friends or family?

Life satisfaction is a global retrospective judgment, cognitively demanding, and likely constructed only when asked. How did you feel when you were working or volunteering yesterday?