The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics. A formal evaluation of students writing . “Writing is a key skill in second language learning and all teachers need to evaluate their students’ writing abilities. The issues surrounding the assessment of. Sara Cushing Weigle – Assessing – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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For example, the ability to write down exactly what someone else says an important skill for a stenographer is quite different from the ability to write a persuasive argument.
Asalefew Mekuria marked it as to-read Apr 02, Atlanta, September CHAPTER ONE Introduction The ability to write effectively is becoming increasingly important in our global community, and instruction in writing is thus assuming an increasing role in both second- and foreign-language education.
In fact, only the first two items on Brown’s list permanence and production time can be seen as fundamental in this sense: The primary purpose is to make inferences about language ability, and the secondary purpose is to make decisions based on those inferences.
The rest of Chapter 1 provides an introduction to writing assessment by considering, first of all, the reasons why people use writing in second-language contexts, and second, the types of writing texts people are likely to need to write in a second language, both inside and outside the language classroom.
Long-term memory includes such things as task schemas, topic knowledge, audience knowledge, genre knowledge, and linguistic knowledge. Lists with This Book. Bereiter and Scardamalia, These strategies are then compared to the strategies that would be predicted based on a theoretical definition of the construct.
cushint Assessing Speaking Cambridge Language Assessment. It is the overall usefulness of the test that is to be max- imized, rather than the individual qualities that affect usefulness. For example, the type of writing that is elicited on a statewide assessment may be considered an indication of the type of writing that society values.
These two models complement each other, as they focus on different issues in writing. Charles Alderson Lyle F.
Knowledge of genre structure and genre constraints F. Performance tests in this sense – where the sole criterion is real-world success, regardless of the means used to achieve it – can generally not be considered language tests, as McNamara points out. Formal and technical words and phrases 4. See Swales,for a thorough discussion of genres, particularly in academic writing.
It is therefore essential, for a particular test, that we clearly specify what is meant by language ability.
That is, if we cannot feel confident that our test gives consistent results, we cannot be sure that the inferences and deci- sions we make on the basis of test results will be appropriate and fair.
My research assistant, Gerry Landers, was a tremendous help in getting weiigle list of references and tables together.
English as a Second Language. It should be noted here that the discussion about speaking and writing has oversimplified somewhat the distinctions between these two modes of communication to emphasize the differences between the interactional nature of aswessing speech i.
When supplemented by factors discussed by Grabe and Kaplan, the Hayes model has particular implications for second- language writers, discussed later in this chapter.
Assessing Writing – Sara Cushing Weigle – Google Books
While Kaplan’s original thesis has been subjected to a number of criticisms see Brown,and Leki,for summaries of these criticismsthe idea of contrastive rhetoric has recently re- gained respectability, as it has become clear to researchers that many aspects of writing are influenced by culture. Grabe and Kaplan provide the following list of possible motivators: The fourth individual component in Hayes’ model is long-term weiigle, in which information and knowledge relevant to the writing task is stored.
She then proposes a conceptual framework for designing and devel- oping writing assessments. While topical knowledge is sometimes included in a construct defi- nition, personal characteristics and affect are usually explicitly ex- asseesing from the construct, and we try to asessing inadvertently measuring these factors in a language test.
Assessing Vocabulary Cambridge Language Assessment.
Full text of “Sara Cushing Weigle Assessing Writing”
The process of knowledge telling is represented graphically in Figure 2. About Sara Cushing Weigle. These weiggle are already highly educated and literate in their first language, and their writing needs are very sophisticated. Spanish writers prefer lengthy introductions, and instead of focusing narrowly on the main ideas of an essay, as in English, Spanish writers make use of digres- sions and asides to show their breadth of knowledge on the topic Collado, ; cited in Leki, She also considers the politics of writing assessment, and the on-going tensions among different stakeholders about the nature of writing assessment, the ways in which these should be scored and interpreted, and the kinds of evidence that need to be provided to support the validity of the inferences and uses we cusihng of the results of writing assessments.
Sqra is some controversy over whether it is important, or even possible, for tea- chers of writing to be well versed in sada discourse conventions of disciplines outside their own Spack,and also to what extent there exists a single ‘academic discourse’ that is shared across the academy and can thus be taught to ESL students see Johns, ; Raimes, ; and Grabe and Kaplan,for summaries of these issues.
In the words of Bereiter and Scardamalia, there is ‘a two-way inter- action between continuously developing knowledge and continuously developing text’ p. Ships from and sold by Amazon.
Finally, an interactive task should engage the writer’s interest so that he or she is able to perform cushihg an optimal level.
Although the model has limitations for example, the model does not provide an explanation for how one makes the transi- tion from knowledge telling to knowledge transformation; see also Grabe and Kaplan [ Finally, there is a third group of L2 learners: Inferences about achievement – or the degree to which individuals or groups of students have met specific instructional goals – are used to make decisions about grading and promotion on the individual level, and about modification of instruc- tion on the classroom level.
Awareness of relative proficiency in different languages and registers II. We refer to the ability that we want to test as a construct, and defining the construct is one of the most fundamental concerns in developing a test.
At least in the English-speaking world, one of the main functions of writing at higher levels of education is to expand one’s own knowledge through reflection rather than simply to communi- cate information Bereiter and Scardamalia, ; Purves et al, In contrast, tasks that allow for a high degree of individual variation in factors, such as topical knowledge and affect, correspond more closely to real-world writing tasks, for example essays written in response to a reading passage in an academic language course.
Chapelle et al, ; Douglas, Hayes conceptualizes working memory as being composed of three components: Age of writer The nature of writing ability 3 1 2. These issues are discussed in detail in Chapters 4, 5, and 6.