Bianculli, AC () Negotiating Trade Liberalization in Argentina and Chile: When Fulquet, G () El Proyecto Educativo Para El MERCOSUR Y Los Debates En Torno . Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. . Journals A-Z. editing, and Michelle Furman for her excellent design work. Joseph S. Tulchin resistance of Mercosur countries, particularly Brazil and Argentina: the launching Red de Investigaciones Económicas del Mercosur, Edificio Mercosur,. Piso 3. Alaska, Arizona (a minimum of 10 US citizens is required, the majority of them . Tucson: University of Arizona Press. “Etnografía del Budismo Zen Argentino: Ritual, Cuerpo y Poder en la “Nuevas religiones japonesas en el Mercosur: La Transnacionalización Ignorada. Montevideo: Ediciones de la Banda Oriental.
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In the next section we examine the broad evidence on the content of the Argentine list of offers, mefcosur turning to the issue of what may have accounted for the outcome. Consequently, in the case of Chile market access commitments were concentrated in only five sectors business services, communications, financial services, tourism and transportation. Apparently, the presentation of the telecommunications list of offers by Argentina was used by the local negotiators to try to extract some bilateral concessions from the United States on selected products.
One of the first activities of the task force was to make a survey of those domestic regulations with implications for international trade in services. According to this view, one key factor behind trade policy formation would be the relative influence of alternative interest groups.
The number of commitments negotiated was higher than in the case of Chile and slightly higher than Brazil.
In line with what most countries did, in Mode 4 it includes binding commitments only for senior business employees executives, managers and specialists. Similarly, there may have existed strong bargaining considerations for upholding concessions in order to extract more reciprocal benefits in the future. Instead of stating this limitation, the Argentine authorities opted for a horizontal exclusion.
On the one hand, the service sector includes a broad range of activities, most of them heavily regulated by different layers of government. Brazil has yet to ratify the commitments undertaken in the Financial Services and Telecommunications protocols. Cross-country differences in national treatment are slightly less marked than in market access, but they maintain the same pattern see Table 2.
The GATS was regarded as something distant and unrelated to business concerns, probably increasing the discretion of national authorities. Insurance and insurance-related services were either unlisted or listed with restrictions except maritime and air transportation insurance.
According to some interviewed, these pressures worked to a certain extent because Argentina included these activities with restrictions as opposed to the original list, where no commitments were undertaken for insurance. This approach may reduce leverage in future multilateral as well as preferential negotiations, as shown by intra-Mercosur negotiations and other inter-regional preferential negotiations, such as that between Mercosur and the European Union. Apart from the role of domestic interest groups, multilateral trade negotiations can also be regarded as a strategic game in which governments look for reciprocal concessions.
Construction and construction- related engineering services. Placing bargaining or strategic considerations in a secondary place as opposed to unilateral reforms may be justified on efficiency grounds.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
Argentina undertook all its commitments in financial services during the UR, meaning that it did not take part in the negotiations of the second and fifth protocols. Section draws some conclusions from the case study.
Based on Berlinski y Romero First, Argentina, Brazil and Chile show uneven coverage ratio across sectors. Doing this work ideally required multi-agency teams of highly trained personnel, which were frequently scarce.
In effect, during these years Argentina entered into an ambitious edittorial of reform in which economic institutions were overhauled. The authors editoriql the case studies wish to disassociate the institutions with which they are associated from opinions expressed in the case studies and from any errors or omission therein. Moreover, in areas where there was not a single responsible agency such as business servicesthe task force had to engage directly in identifying existing regulations and drawing direct inputs from the private sector such as professional associations.
A number of specific market access problems were identified in areas such as construction and consulting especially in Brazilbut a decision was made to take these issues to the sub-regional rather than the multilateral negotiating table. The elaboration of the GATS list of commitments faced many technical and information obstacles. Third, for the same reasons the ratios developed by Hoeckman provide a fragile basis for cross-country or cross-sector comparisons.
Number of negotiated commitments na In those sectors in which Argentina undertook commitments, they were even deeper than the OECD average.
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In the case of communications Argentina undertook commitments for approximately two-thirds of the total number of negotiable items. In effect, while Argentina bound This confronted them with the imperative to understand the nature of the issues under negotiation and the implications of alternative modalities and commitments. In addition, in most sectors where Argentina made market access offers the degree of openness committed was higher than the OECD average see Table 4.
In others, such as environmental and other services, technical uncertainties and poor information may have also played argdntina role. None of the countries made commitments in the fields of education, environmental services, social and healthcare services, recreational, cultural and sporting services, and other services.
The GATS offers largely reflect this phenomenon.
In the five remaining service sectors of mmercosur finance and communications stand out in terms of economic significancethe extent of the commitments was comparatively generous in terms of both coverage and depth.
The first academic works dealing with trade in services were published in the second half of the s.
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Apparently, the post office authority tried unilaterally to bind a competitive regime for postal services in order to end the state monopoly. Opinions expressed in the case studies and any errors or omissions therein are the responsibility of their authors and not of the editors of this volume or of the institutions with which they are affiliated.
However, UDES had very limited success in mobilizing the private sector or making substantive contributions to the policy-making process.